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3 Homeopathic Remedies For Croup

3 Homeopathic Remedies For Croup

What if you could stop a croup cough – fast?

As a new mom of twins, waking to the sound of croup was so terrifying.

The classic ringing, barking cough created fear throughout the home and always at midnight!

You can stop the croup fast, with these homeopathic remedies.

Croup Symptoms

What is croup?

  • Croup is an inflammation of the larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and sometimes the bronchi (the air passages between the throat and the lung).
  • It usually accompanies a mild upper respiratory infection and the child wakes with a dry, barking, ringing cough. When this ringing, barking cough subsides, the common cold usually follows.
  • Croup typically strikes children between the ages of two and four and startles your deep sleep between 12-2 am.

Croup Sound

I’ve found, homeopathy is the fastest way to stop a croup cough in the middle of the night.

You should only need the first remedy, Aconite, to stop the croup, but you may want to have the other remedies on hand in case the cough continues into the morning.

Watch this FREE training to understand how to use homeopathy correctly.

Homeopathic Remedies for a Croup Cough – See where to purchase below

Aconite (Aconitum Napellus)-30C

Take Aconite 30c at the onset of croup if your child has these symptoms.

  • Here the cough is dry, loud and barking and the child is exceedingly restless and anxious- usually, awakes in the middle of the night between 12-2 am.
  • They are better off open-air and often, thirsty.
  • These symptoms are the very picture of Aconite.
  • If, after an hour, symptoms persist, give a second dose of Aconite. This is usually all that is needed. The child should be sleeping by now.

Spongia (Spongia Tosta)- 30C

  • If, however, after another hour, your child’s breathing is harsh and hard and the barking, ringing cough continues, give Spongia 30c.
  • The throat is sensitive to touch; a cough sounds like a saw driven through a board, and there is dryness of all air passages.
  • Also, the child is warm and is worse for swallowing.

The last potential solution you may need would be:

Hepar Sulph. (Hepar Sulphuris Calcareum)-30C

    • If toward morning, the coughing continues and breathing is still not smooth and easy, give Hepar Sulphuris 30C.
    • Here the cough is loose and rattling and deeper toned, and they have a dry, hoarse cough. The child is irritable and chilly.
    • They feel like the wind is blowing on some part of their body and may want to wrap their head up or put on a hat.
    • Watch this video for the morning croup cough.

    • Rarely do we need more than Aconite in treating croup.
    • When the cough has ceased, continue with tinctures for the common cold
    • Grab this freebie to see my favorite herbs for kids!

Homeopathy is safe and gentle when following these guidelines.

Here are some tips:

  • Take one dose of 30C when you first hear a croup cough. 30C is a safe potency for children. Please do not purchase anything higher unless suggested by a professional.
  • Wait 20 minutes and notice any changes.
  • If the child is not asleep, give a second dose.
  • At this point, the child should be sleeping.
  • If they are not sleeping, see the remedy for Spongia Tosta.

Whenever using homeopathic medicine follow the rules of “like cures like.”

#1 You are watching the child for any unusual symptoms

#2 Your writing down anything you see or hear

#3 You only give the treatment when your symptoms match the remedy.

#4 STOP giving doses when the child’s energy shifts, they look better, sound better or maybe they begin to drink water or eat something.

Conclusion

Homeopathy is the fastest, safest way to stop a croup cough in 20-minutes. I know it may be scary at first, but with practice you’ll discover homeopathic medicine is the safest medicine for our children.

Along with herbs to soothe their cold, your child will be better in no time.

As always, consult your doctor if the remedies do not work or your child has a high fever.

Warmly~

Tara

P.S. >>>Ready to learn more? Grab this FREEBIE; The 5 Homeopathic Mistakes we typically make when we start using those little sugar pills.

Click here to subscribe

Where can you purchase Croup remedies?

Search here for Aconite, Spongia, and Hepar Sulphuris.

 

8 Ways To Treat Ear Infections Naturally

8 Ways To Treat Ear Infections Naturally

I know what you’re thinking.

How can you treat an ear infection naturally?

And will it actually work?

  • What if your child didn’t need antibiotics every time their ear was red and inflamed?
  • What if changing their diet would result in fewer ear infections?

👉Think about this for a moment. Your child could be prescribed antibiotics six times in a season due to ear pain.

Here’s the thing. Ear pain or Otitis media (i.e. middle ear infection), is the number-one childhood health problem in America.¹

And, overuse of antibiotics can lead to disruption in gut health, increase their risk of allergies, eczema, and asthma.

Grab your FREE: 5 Alternatives to Antibiotics for kids to reduce ear infections today

alternativestoantibiotics

 

Ear Infection Causes

The Four leading causes suggested by Dr. Michael Schmidt of “Healing Childhood Ear Infections”:

  • #1 Allergy and Environmental sensitivity
    • **Cow’s milk, wheat, egg white, peanut and soy being the top allergens. Sugar, chocolate, corn, and yeast follow.
    • Environmental sensitivities include Cigarette smoke, house dust, pollen, mold, volatile organic compounds, fungi, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, animal dander, and bacterial infection.
  • # 2 Mechanical obstruction
  • #3 Nutrient Insufficiency

Symptoms of an ear infection

  • One of the first changes you may notice with a middle ear problem is a change in behavior or sleep habits.
  • A child may pull or tug at the ear or poke their finger inside.
  • They may want to be held or just lay still.
  • Older children may tell you it feels blocked, plugged, buzzing, or ringing sounds in their ear.

5 Ear Infection Symptoms For Children

    1. tugging on the ear
    2. crying/screaming
    3. wanting to be held
    4. one cheek red
    5. warm to touch

The truth is, you may have to change your child’s diet if they are always getting ear infections. The first thing I would do is try goat’s milk formula or take dairy out of your diet if you’re breastfeeding or out of your child’s diet.

It’s hard, I know. But, it is worth it.

Personally, I find homeopathy is the best remedy for ear infections.

8 Ear Infection Remedies

#1 Encourage your child to drink caffeine-free tea

  • Botanicals can reduce inflammation and “pull out” excessive mucous.
  • Make a cup of tea with Lemon Balm, Catnip, Elderflower, and maybe ginger. Add honey or apple juice to sweeten.

#2 Apply Lavender Essential Oil topically for pain

  • Apply DILUTED Lavender essential oil under the ear and at the cheeks. Dilute one drop of Essential oil in 1tsp. Of carrier oil like olive oil or almond oil. {Just 1 drop, no more!}
  • Caution: Only use this with children over 1 year of age.

#3 Place Garlic Mullein oil inside of the ear

  • Mullein is an analgesic, receiving the pain associated with earaches. Only use this if there is no perforation or leaking from the ear to reduce inflammation.
  • Herb Pharm has a great ear oil here.
  • Heat the oil up a bit with a spoon and match to soothe their inflamed ear. Caution: Make sure it’s not too hot!

#4 Add herbs to their bath

  • Add chamomile, lavender or thyme infusion to their bath.
  • To make an infusion; Place 2tbs. of herb, or 4tbs. of fresh herb in a pint jar. Fill with boiling water and put on the lid. Let it sit for 1/2 hour to 8 hours. Strain and add to a warm tub.
    • Alternatively, you can use Essential oils BUT be very careful.
    • Use only 1 drop of E.O. DILUTED in milk before adding to the tub. Use only with children 3+ months. (Caution you always have to dilute essential oils. I like to dilute them in milk, so the E.O. does not aggravate the child)

#6 Keep the diet lite

Encourage soups and greens. Remove all dairy, sugar, juice, and all kinds of milk from the diet

Homeopathy is the fastest and safest way to overcome an ear infection. Click To Tweet

#7 Homeopathy for ear pain

  • Homeopathy is based on the unusual and peculiar symptoms of the child.
  • Take notes, write down what you see, and then contact your local homeopath for the perfect remedy.
  • If you choose to try it on your own; know that your child’s symptoms may get worse at first, BUT THEN they should improve by the second or third dose.
  • The first thing to change with homeopathy is their mental state. Instead of being carried, your child may want to go play. Instead of screaming, they may calm down and drink and eat. Each person is unique.
  • Teething children may do well with Chamomilla 30 c or Pulsatilla 30c.
    • If it is the Left Ear, the remedy may be Kali-b, Lach., Sul.
    • The Right Ear may be Belladonna 30c.{Book a health consultation for the best results}

#8 Herbal Medicine for Ear Pain

  • For pain relief try tinctures of Willow bark, Feverfew, and St. Johns Wort.
    • Willow Minor Pain Response (Herb Pharm)
    • Jamaica Dogwood tree bark (Piscidia erythrina)
    • St. John’s Wort flower & bud (Hypericum perforatum)
    • Meadowsweet leaf & flower (Filipendula ulmaria)
    • Willow bark (Salix lucida)

Conclusion:

It is possible to reduce the amount of antibiotic use for ear infections with diet, homeopathy, and botanicals. Often, taking out dairy may be able the only change your child’s needs.

P.S. >>>Ready to learn more? Grab this freebie to get started and consider purchasing Herbs & Homeopathy 101 to learn more.

alternativestoantibiotics

 


References:

¹ Schmidt, Dr. Michael A., Healing Childhood Ear Infections. Prevention, Home Care, and Alternative Treatment

 

Obsessed with natural remedies, Tara Gregorio is a Certified Women’s Herbal Educator located in Cold Spring, NY. She loves helping women reduce their medications with botanicals. Her favorite herbal recipes can be found on Pinterest and Instagram. https://taragregorio.com/
Lemon Balm Popsicles

Lemon Balm Popsicles

Do you have little kids at home that love popsicles?

This recipe is great for kids who are:

  • teething
  • fever
  • hot summer day
  • and it soothes anxiety

The main ingredient Lemon Balm {melissa officianalis} is safe for kids and is known as the “gladdening herb”. You may notice after these pops that your kiddos are very happy:)

Lemon Balm Benefits

  • antiviral – known to reduce viral illnesses
  • calms the mind and promotes sleep
  • improves digestion
  • fights the herpes virus
  • soothes kids with ADD and ADHD
  • reduces PMS

Echinacea Benefits

It’s optional to add a tincture of Echinacea. I would do this in the winter months or for kids age 2-6, as they are most prone to catching viral infections.

Echinacea Benefits:

  • reduce cold & flu symptoms
  • controls blood sugar
  • increases number of white blood cells that fight infection

Homemade Popsicle Recipe

Herbal Popsicles

Ingredients

  • 2 tbs. of Dried Lemon Balm
  • 1 cup of Fruit- we like strawberries and banana or frozen mango
  • Small Can of Pineapple juice or raw honey if you prefer
  • 2 tbs. Echinacea (optional)

Instructions

  1. Make 2 cups of lemon balm tea (a handful of fresh or dried lemon balm leaves steep in 2 cups of water.)
  2. Strain.
  3. Add 1 cup of chopped fruit & the pineapple juice to a blender and blend.
  4. Mix in 2 TBS echinacea tincture (optional)
  5. Mix all the ingredients super well and distribute evenly into a popsicle mold.
  6. Freeze, serve. Make sure to try one yourself! Yum!!!
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DIY Popsicle Molds

Here are some popsicle molds we love!

I purchase lemon balm from mountainroseherbs.com

xoxo

Tara

Looking for more recipes? Join my mini-course to get started: https://taragregorio.com/shop/

 

Certified women’s herbal educator, Tara Gregorio is helping moms all around the world build an apothecary of remedies to reduce medications all year. See her online courses: https://taragregorio.com/online-courses/

4 Medications That Could Affect Your Child’s Gut Health

4 Medications That Could Affect Your Child’s Gut Health

Be honest. You’re wondering why everyone is gluten and/or dairy-free.

Why do some people have trouble digesting these foods or others have no problem.

What if your child was able to eat these foods again, without digestive pain?

And should this be a concern of yours?

Think about this for a moment. Your child is exposed to more chemicals and antibiotics than you ever were.

Do you ever wonder if it is affecting their health?

Here’s the thing, there are medications affecting your child’s gut health.

4 Medications that lead to Leaky Gut Syndrome In Kids:

  • #1 Antibiotics
  • #2 Steroids
  • #3 NSAIDs
  • #4 Acid reducing medication

What is Leaky Gut Syndrome?

“Leaky gut, also known as increased intestinal permeability, is a digestive condition in which bacteria and toxins are able to “leak” through the intestinal wall.”

But hang on, why is this a concern for us?

When you have Leaky Gut, you are at an increased risk for food sensitivity and food allergies.

What exactly is a food sensitivity?

A food sensitivity:

  • typically causes a less severe reaction
  • they may have an ongoing/undiagnosed cough
  • usually causes digestive problems
  • your child’s skin may break out after they eat
  • dairy and gluten may be the top sensitive foods for them

A true food allergy causes:

  • an immune system reaction that affects numerous organs in the body
  • it can cause a range of symptoms
  • in some cases, an allergic food reaction can be severe or life-threatening
  • you would NEVER re-introduce this food into your child’s diet!!!
  • The 4R approach may reduce your child’s reaction to their allergy but you would never re-introduce the food to them again unless under a doctor’s supervision

But don’t forget, you can heal your child’s gut with the 4R approach below.

Does my child need to heal their gut? Do they have these symptoms?

Leaky Gut Syndrome Symptoms

  1. Chronic diarrhea, constipation, gas or bloating
  2. Nutritional deficiencies
  3. Poor immune system
  4. Headaches, brain fog, memory loss
  5. Excessive fatigue
  6. Skin rashes and problems such as acne, eczema or rosacea
  7. Cravings for sugar or carbs
  8. Joint pain
  9. Depression, anxiety, ADD, ADHD, bad behavior at school
  10. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac
  11. Chronic cough
  12. Allergies, Asthma, & Eczema
  13. Cheeks get red easily
If your child has some of these symptoms, they may have Leaky Gut Syndrome and may need the 4R approach. Take this questionnaire to see if your child needs to heal their gut. 👇

Leaky Gut Syndrome Test

How? Let me explain.

How to improve digestion in toddlers & big kids?

It’s a method that addresses the underlying causes of gut imbalances and restores harmony, helping to alleviate symptoms and maybe even disease for our children. The program suggests you: Remove> Reinoculate> Repair> Reintroduce

Healing leaky gut in child

How do you heal your child’s gut?

  • Promote healthy evacuation daily with fiber, fruit, vegetables, and water
  • Try an elimination diet for 2-3 weeks if symptoms persist, you may want to try the 4R approach
  • Remove all triggers: i.e. all allergens and cross reactors like gluten and dairy
  • Get off medications (with Dr.’s approval and replace with natural remedies )
  • Reduce your child’s stress with reading, being outside, and adding herbal teas
  • Heal their gut lining with the 4R approach below
  • NEVER re-introduce foods that cause a true allergic reaction

Keep in mind.

This program is most successful when the whole family agrees to participate. So, what are the steps?

Leaky Gut Supplements

The 4R approach for children

1. Remove

Take out what ails them

  • Remove the top allergens for your child including wheat, corn, eggs, dairy, peanuts, and soybeans.
  • Add in whole grains (like quinoa and rice), organic vegetables, fruit, and healthy fats.
  • Remove all allergens for 4-6 weeks or it may take up to a year to heal their gut with an auto-immune disease.
  • Encourage whole, organic foods if able.
  • This is the hardest part to do with small kids. It helps if the whole house works together.
  • Plan ahead. Print recipes, go grocery shopping, be prepared for meltdowns:)

2. Replace

  • Add in a digestive enzyme like Vital Chews or Kids Digest to help your child digest protein, dairy, and meat
  • If digestive enzymes produce bloating, your child may have SIBO. Ask for help.
  • Teenagers can have 350 HCL at the beginning of a meal to aid digestion or offer bitters to them.

3. Reinoculate

  • Add in a high-quality children’s probiotic like Klaire
    • this is safe for infants and up to age 7
  • Wait 2 weeks for the elimination diet or up to 6 weeks. Adding in a probiotic can give you gas and bloating if you do not remove the allergens first and start with digestive enzymes.
  • Look for probiotics with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species.
  • For older kids, they can incorporate fermented foods such as miso, sauerkraut, and kimchee 3-4x week.
  • Although very delicious, kombucha can be high in sugar so consider using sparingly.

4. Repair

Include the following supplements for 6-weeks or more to repair your child’s gut. Dosing depends on your child’s age. The following supplements can be taken for up to 6 months to help to heal the intestinal lining:

  • Tumeric
  • Curcumin
  • Ginger
  • Chamomile Tea
  • Marshmallow root powder
  • DGL licorice (aloe and licorice are not for internal use during pregnancy; these are fine for children) are some of the most effective herbs for healing the gut lining.

Zinc dosing

  • Age 4-7 years old 5-10 mg/day
  • Age 12 10-20 mg/day

Fish oil:

Conclusion

In short, if your child is struggling with food sensitivities and you find you’re avoiding foods, there is hope. The 4R approach is more than an elimination diet. The 4R approach can heal your child’s digestive tract, reduce bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation for years to come, and reduce their risk of autoimmune disease as well.

 

>>>>>P.S. Ready to learn more? Grab this FREE gut health questionnaire; perfect for kids age 2+.

Obsessed with natural remedies, Tara Gregorio is a Certified Women’s Herbal Educator located in Cold Spring, NY. She loves helping women reduce their medications with botanicals. Her favorite herbal recipes can be found on Pinterest and Instagram. https://taragregorio.com/
Colic Tea For Babies

Colic Tea For Babies

Crying, belly aches, and bloating.

Try this soothing tea blend to aid your baby’s digestion and yours.

If you are worried about your breastmilk production, skip the lemon balm and sip on chamomile and fennel tea.

What’s in the blend?

Colic Tea For Babies

Ingredients

  • Dried Chamomile Flowers
  • Dried Fennel Seed
  • Dried Lemon Balm {skip if breastfeeding}

Instructions

  1. Combine all three herbs in one container
  2. Take 1 tbs. of herbs to 1 cup of boiling water
  3. Cover and steep for 10 minutes
  4. Strain and add honey ONLY if mom is drinking the tea
  5. Drink the tea before breastfeeding
  6. If you are offering the tea to your baby, strain and cool the tea. Add the cool tea by dropperful to the baby while feeding or add to bottle if bottle fed.
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Chamomile

Matricaria recutita (German Chamomile) or Asteraceae Anthemis nobiles (Roman Chamomile)

Chamomile calms the spirit and is the number one botanical for both mom and baby. As a nervine, it will soothe anxiety and restlessness. It calms digestion and soothes nervous stomachs. It also can treat fevers, colds, flu, and headaches and relieve cramps from birth or menses. This botanical is safe and calming and one of the best herbs for crying, restless babies. Use it in the baby’s bathwater to clear up diaper rash, heal wounds or cuts.

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel seeds are warming and a little spicy; aiding gas and bloating for both mom and baby. Mom can eat them directly, if feeling bloated, and make a cup of colic tea to feed to the baby by dropperful throughout the day. This after-meal tea can ease gas, indigestion, abdominal pain, and spasms.

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

Known as the gladdening herb, Lemon balm lifts the spirits, and as a carminative; it aids digestion and relieves gas. The yummy lemony taste is well-loved by both women and children and when your little one is old; make a cup of Lemon balm tea with milk and honey. It is also antiviral, so it is very effective for breaking fevers and treating colds and flu.

The slight minty taste may lower mom’s breastmilk, but will certainly do no harm to the baby. And, as a combined tea blend, it may relieve moms’ anxiety and restlessness and lift their spirits.

Worried about herbs & breastfeeding?

Moms love this website for a quick reference: https://kellymom.com/bf/got-milk/herbs_to_avoid/

5 Colic Remedies For Breastfed Babies

5 Colic Remedies For Breastfed Babies

Be honest.

Your colicky baby is driving you mad.

I can relate. My son had colic, a milk allergy, and reflux and had to sleep inclined for months. It was exhausting. They actually have correlated PPD with colicky babies. ¹ This was true for us.

What if you could soothe your child so they would sleep more easily?

Imagine what it would be like to have a child who slept and was not in pain.

But don’t forget. Always check with your doctor before adding anything new to your child’s diet.

Want to get started? In this post, I’ll share how addressing your child’s gut health can reduce the pain from colic.

What is Colic in babies?

colic

Colicky babies follow the rules of three.

  • They typically are 3 months old
  • Cry for 3 hours at a time
  • For at least 3 days a week!

You may notice your baby’s legs are drawn up and your baby seems like they are in pain. Colic is due to digestion and the pain may be due to excessive gas.

Other symptoms you may notice:

  • Your baby clenches their fists
  • They have a red, flushed face
  • They tighten their stomach muscles
  • They have a bloated tummy

What Causes Colic?

Here’s the thing. Colic is the start of what’s called an Atopic triad; Eczema, Seasonal Allergies, and Asthma symptoms typically follow children with colic.

Although not completely sure of the cause of Colic, these kids also have higher strains of gut bacteria called Clostridia, which cause gas, bloating, and indigestion. ²

And, C-section babies have lower rates of Bifidobacterium-like bacteria and Lactobacillus-like bacteria, compared to vaginal births. ³ Which may affect their digestion.

Here are a series of steps you can try to soothe your colicky baby.

Colic affects up to 28% of infants¹

5 Colic Remedies For Breastfed Babies

#1 Address their gut health

If your child was born via C-section, was formula fed, or has had one round of antibiotics, their gut health may be compromised. Try an elimination diet for mom if breastfeeding or Hydrolyzed protein formula if your child is bottle-fed. You could also explore goat’s milk formula as well. Moms like Holle formula.

In one study, the infants who received 5 drops of L reuteri each morning 30 minutes before the morning feeding and moms removed dairy from their diet, had a 50% reduction in crying time; compared to the placebo group. ¹

#2 Consider an elimination diet for mom

If you are breastfeeding, mom may consider an elimination diet due to gut dysbiosis; which is the imbalance of the microbial in mom’s gut due to medications, stress, birth or yeast in the gut.

  • For mom: Removing the top allergens: Gluten, and dairy if breastfeeding and consider healing your gut with the 4R approach
  • If your baby is eating – remove gluten and dairy as well in the baby’s diet

#3 Add Lactobacillus to both of your diets

Lactobacillus can break down the sugar and hydrogen gas that is causing the cramping. I like Klair infant probiotic for baby and Klair Women’s for mom.

# 3 Drink Herbal Teas

Offer your child chamomile tea to aid with digestion or sip on this before breastfeeding to support elimination and gas.

Colic Tea for Babies

Combine equal parts of the following herbs. Then take 1 tbs. to 1 cup of boiling water. Cover and let steep for 10 minutes. Strain, then use a dropper to administer to children throughout the day to soothe gas and belly bloat.

#4 Essential oil for gas {externally}

A relaxing herbal bath can help relax baby and release gas.

  • Add just 1 drop of chamomile essential oil or lavender essential oil to 1/4 cup of milk and add to the tub for baby
  • Alternatively, you could make a strong cup of chamomile tea, cool it and it to the tub as well

Tummy massage

  • Make a calming massage oil by blending 1 drop of essential oil of chamomile or lavender in 1 tsp. of almond oil
  • Massage up the baby’s right side, across the middle and down the left to aid digestion
  • PLEASE USE JUST 1 DROP FOR INFANTS

#5 Consider the 4R approach to heal moms gut from dysbiosis


Homeopathic remedies for colic

I also LOVE using homeopathy with children. Here are some great remedies for colic.

  • ColocynthisThe child’s belly feels better from firm pressure. They are cranky and double up and scream with gas pains.
  • Magnesia phosphoricaThe baby wants warmth and gentle pressure on the belly. The key sign in a warmed bottle over the belly feels better.
  • Bryonia- The baby does not want to be carried, asks for a drink and then doesn’t want it. Irritable and worse for moving, carrying, or jarring. They can’t stand to be moved
  • Chamomilla –The child wants to be carried constantly but that doesn’t help. They cry for water and then don’t want it. They may wine for toys and then throws it away. Often they have one red check and the other pale. You cannot please or soothe the child who needs chamomille. The key sign is they calm down more when carried and fuss when put down.

Homeopathy is tricky, but effective. Learn how to use it correctly with this Freebie 👇

Conclusion

Colic in babies is a sign of too much gas in their belly, due to an imbalance of gut bacteria. Addressing mom’s and babies’ gut health can stop the pain and allow your baby to be soothed. Drinking herbal teas and integrating homeopathy can aid digestion for both mom and baby and reduce the excessive gas; causing the pain.

 


Resources

  • ¹https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183958/
  • ² https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10434974
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26111284
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890463

 

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